Monday, 14 May 2012

Tribal Headdresses From Around The World ~ Part XIII

Cherokee (Tsalagihi Ayili) Tribe ~ Oklahoma, North Carolina & Tennessee
The above two images are courtesy of:

Image courtesy of:

The above two photographs are by hillbilly129 ~ August 18, 2007
The above two images are courtesy of:

The Cherokee Indians were one of the largest of five Native American tribes who settled in the American Southeast portion of the country. The tribe came from Iroquoian descent. They had originally been from the Great Lakes region of the country, but eventually settled closer to the east coast.

 Despite popular folklore, the Cherokee actually lived in cabins made of logs instead of the stereotypical tee pee. They were a strong tribe with several smaller sections, all lead by chiefs. The tribe was highly religious and spiritual. When the American Revolution took place, the Cherokee Indians supported the British soldiers, and even assisted them in battle by taking part in several attacks. The Creek and Choctaw tribes also assisted in the battles on the British side.

Eventually around the 1800s, the Cherokee Indians began to adopt the culture that the white man brought to them. They began to dress more European, and even adopted many of their farming and building methods. In 1828, gold was discovered on the Cherokee’s land. This prompted the overtaking of their homes, and they were forced out. They had been settled in Georgia for many years, but were now being made to leave and find a new place to settle. This is the origin for the historically popular Trail of Tears, where men, women, and children had to pack up their belongings and find new homes, marching a span of thousands of miles. When all was said and done, about 4,000 Cherokee lost their lives on the journey. Today, the Cherokee Indians have a strong sense of pride in their heritage. The Cherokee rose is now the state flower of Georgia. Today, the largest population of Cherokee Indians live in the state of Oklahoma, where there are three federally recognized Cherokee communities with thousands of residents. (Quoted from:

Kaw (Kansa, Kansas, Kanza or Konze) Tribe ~ Oklahoma
Above left, Yellow Chief ~ undated | Above right, Wash-Shun-Gah ~ undated
The above images are all courtesy of:


 Two hundred years ago the Kanza lived near the confluence of what is today known as the Kansas and Missouri Rivers. The Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804 visited one of the Kanza villages situated high on bluffs overlooking the Missouri River and the explorers had the location noted on their maps. Subsequently, non-Indian settlers moved into this place and renamed the site Atchison, Kansas. The Tribe moved to a new location along the Kansas River to where it converges with the Big Blue. The tribe's population at that time was approximately one thousand seven hundred (pop. 1,700). The settlers again followed and camped just west of the Kanza - modern day Manhattan , Kansas.... Today the Kanza population is one thousand six hundred thirty three (1,633).... The Kanza are The People of the South Wind. They have lived long with the South Wind and the South Wind with them. The Wind travels far and fast and knows the movements of the Buffalo and other foragers. The Wind conducts reconnaissance on enemies and carries messages to and from allies. The Wind knows where nuts, fruit and grains grow and the hiding place of squirrels, rabbit, and turkey. It is not surprising the Kanza consult the South Wind.” (Quoted from: Kaw Nation History


Image courtesy of:

Mdewakanton (Mdewakantonwan) Tribe ~ Minnesota
Above left, Big Eagle ~ 1858 | Above right, His Own Thunder ~ 1858

Above left, Iron Elk ~ 1858 | Above right, Little Short Horn (Chief He-hu'te-dan) ~ 1858

Little Crow (Hawk That Hunts Walking) ~ 1869

Above left & right, Little Crow (Hawk That Hunts Walking) ~ 1858

Above left, Shining Iron (Transparent Iron) ~ 1858 | Above right, The Thief ~ 1858

Little Six ~ 1858
The above ten images are all courtesy of:

Mniconjou (Minneconjoux Sioux) Tribe ~ South Dakota
Above left & right, Touch The Clouds ~ 1877

Above left, Chief Red Horse ~ 1883 | Above right, White Swan & Joseph Four Bears ~ undated

Above left & right, One Feather ~ 1913

Above left & right, Kicking Bear ~ 1886 (L) & undated (R)

Above left, George Two Lance ~ 1913 | Above right, Eagle Shield ~ 1913

Above left, Red Bird ~ 1913 | Above right, White Buffalo Walking ~ 1913

Above left, Reuben Chase In Sight ~ 1913 | Above right, Bear With White Paw ~ 1913

Above left, Spotted Elk, Head Warrior ~ 1878 | Above right, an unidentified Mniconjou girl ~ undated

Above left, Swift Dog ~ 1913 | Above right, Tall Bear ~ undated
The above eighteen images are all courtesy of:

The above three photos are of Kicking Bear ~ 1896
The above three images are courtesy of:

Sauk (Sac) & Fox Tribe ~ Iowa & Oklahoma
Sauk Indian family ~ 1899
(Photo by Frank Albert Rinehart [1861-1928])

Above left, Many Scalps ~ 1868 | Above right, Shell Fish (Sac-a-pe) ~ ca. 1868

Above left, Chief Che-Ko-Skuk ~ ca. 1868 | Above right, Qua-Qua-Ouf-Pe-Ka (Dead Indian) ~ 1868

Above left, Bear In The Fork Of A Tree ~ 1858 | Above right, Eating Acorns Up A Tree ~ 1869

Iowa, Sauk & Fox Tribesmen ~ 1866

Above left, Hard Thinker ~ 1896 | Above right, Picking Up Something ~ 1896

Above left & right, Fish Rub Against Something ~ 1896

Po-Ga-Ha'Ma-We ~ 1888

 Above left & right, Po-Ga-Ha'Ma-We ~ 1896

 The Sauk Indians lived in what is now Rock Island, Illinois. They lived in wigwams, and they hunted, farmed, and fished for food. Men in the tribe wore breechcloths and sported no hair or mohawks. Sometimes men in the tribe wore roaches which are headpieces made out of deer and porcupine hair. Women wore wraparound skirts and braids in their hair. Both men and women in the Sauk tribe wore moccasins. They travelled by foot or by canoe, and after the white settlers arrived in North America they began using horses to travel.” (Quoted from: Project WOW Sauk Indians)

Above left, The Sea ~ 1869 | Above right, Wha-Co-Ma ~ 1868

Above left, Moses Keokuk ~ 1868 | Above right, Fish Floating To The Shore ~ 1868

Above left, Peatwy Tuck ~ 1898 | Above right, Cannot Do It ~ 1890

Mrs Sarah Whistler ~ 1898

Shining River ~ 1890

Shining River ~ 1890

Above left, Wam-Pash-Ka ~ 1896 | Above right, Winding Stream ~ 1890

Above left, The South Wind ~ undated | Above right, Push-E-To-Neke-Qua with Joe Tyson ~ 1899

 Above, Sauk & Fox Chiefs ~ undated

Two Little Braves ~ 1898
The above thirty-one images are all courtesy of:

Shoshoni (Shoshone) Tribe ~ Idaho, Nevada, Wyoming, Montana & Utah
Above left, Grouse Pete ~ 1880 | Above right, Uriewici ~ 1880

Shoshoni Tribesmen ~ 1872

Shoshoni women & children ~ 1878

The historic Shoshone Indians, of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock, occupied territory in California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, although most of them seemed to be settled in the Snake river area in Idaho. Historical documents from the Lewis & Clark expedition often refer to the Shoshone as the 'Snake Indians'; the actual name 'Shoshone' means 'The Valley People.' 'inland,' or 'in the valley.' The Shoshone were few in numbers, their total population being somewhere in the area of 8000. ... Today, the Shoshone are still waiting to become a Federally recognized tribe, along with over 200 other Native American tribes such as the California Chumash and the North-Eastern Abenakis. There has been much controversy surrounding the U.S. Government's plans to commemorate the bicentennial of the Lewis & Clark expedition. (Quoted from: Shoshone Indians)

Above left, Captain Jim ~ 1880 | Above right, Chief Washakie ~ 1880

Shoshoni Tribesmen ~ 1869 | Above right, Shoshoni Tribesman ~ undated

Weasaw ~ undated
The above nine images are all courtesy of:

Sihásapa (Blackfoot or Blackfeet Sioux) Tribe ~ South Dakota
Above left, Flees From Iron ~ 1872 | Above right, Sitting Crow ~ 1872

The above three photographs are of Grass (Used As A Shield) ~ 1872

Above left, Charging Bear (John Grass, son of Grass) ~ 1912 | Above right, High Feather ~ 1880
The above seven images are all courtesy of:

Umatilla Tribe ~ Oregon
Above left & right, Yellow Bird (Pe-O-Pu-Mox-Mox) ~ undated

Above left, Edna Kash Kash ~ undated | Above right, Susie Kop Lops ~ undated

Above left, Jim Badroads ~ undated | Above right, Doctor Whirlwind (Charley Saplish) ~ undated

When the leaders of the Walla Walla, Cayuse, and Umatilla peoples signed a treaty with the United States in 1855, they ceded 6.4 million acres of homeland in what is now northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. Today the three-tribe confederation numbers 2,652. The 172,000 acre reservation, almost half of which is owned by non-Indians, includes significant portions of the Umatilla River watershed.

The Umatilla River and Grande Ronde rivers have been the focus of the tribe's fish restoration activities for more than a decade. Under the tribe's leadership, salmon were reintroduced in the Umatilla river in the early 1980s. The tribe, along with the state of Oregon, operate egg-taking, spawning, and other propagation facilities that are helping restore salmon runs. The first fall chinook in some 70 years returned to the Umatilla River in 1984.

In the Grande Ronde watershed, the Umatilla and Nez Perce tribes and state and federal agencies developed a state-of-the-art salmon habitat restoration plan for the U.S.D.A. Forest Service. Other river basins in which the tribe has comanagement responsibilities are the Columbia, Snake, Walla Walla, Tucannon, Grande Ronde, John Day, and Imnaha. In recent times, tribal fisheries have occurred only on the Umatilla and Columbia rivers. The Umatilla are governed by the Board of Trustees composed of nine members elected by the General Council. Tribal headquarters are located in Mission, Oregon. (Quoted from: Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission)

Above left, Peo Chief ~ undated | Above right, Little Chief ~ undated
Above left, an unidentified Umatilla Chief ~ undated | Above right, White Bull ~ undated
The above ten images are all courtesy of:

(The above two photos are by Edward S. Curtis ~ 1910)
The above two images are courtesy of:

Wicasa (Kul Wicasa Oyate or Lower Brulé Sioux) Tribe ~ South Dakota
Above left & right, Eagle Man (Anbli) ~ undated
The above two images are courtesy of:

The Kul Wicasa Oyate or Lower Brulé Sioux Tribe are a Tribe of the Sicangu, or Burned Thighs, named the 'Brulé' by the French traders in the days prior to diplomatic relations with the United States government. The Kul Wicasa Oyate was originally designated reservation lands along the Missouri River recognized in a treaty with the United States signed on October 14, 1865. The Lower Brulé Sioux Tribe was further defined and the boundaries expanded by the Act of March 2, 1889, which identified all the reservations in present day North and South Dakota.
(Quoted from: Sioux Indians)

The above eleven maps are all courtesy of:

Suggested readings:

The Kaw: The Heart Of A Nation (1975), by Floyd Benjamin Streeter: Ayer Publishing

The Norther Shoshoni (1980), by Brigham D. Madsen: Caxton Press

The Kansas Indians: A History Of The Wind People, 1673-1873 (1986), by William E. Unrau: University of Oklahoma Press

The Shoshoni (1988), by Dennis B. Fradin: Children's Press

Trail Of Tears: The Rise And Fall Of The Cherokee Nation (1989), by John Ehle: Random House of Canada

Myths and Legends of the Sioux (1990), by Marie L. McLaughlin: University of Nebraska Press

The Forgotten Tribes: Oral Tales Of The Teninos And Adjacent Mid-Columbia River Indian Nations (1991), by Donald M. Hines: VNR AG

After The Trail Of Tears: The Cherokees' Struggle For Sovereignty, 1839-1880 (1994), by William Gerald McLoughlin: UNC Press Books

The Shoshone Indians (1997), by Nathaniel Moss: Facts On File

Sagwitch: Shoshone Chieftain, Mormon Elder, 1822-1887 (1999), by Scott R. Christensen: Utah State University Press

Dakota Life In The Upper Midwest (2002), by Samuel William Pond: Minnesota Historical Society Press

The Blackfeet Nation (2002), by Allison Lassieur: Capstone Press

The Blackfeet (2002), by Raymond Bial: Marshall Cavendish Corp.

The Shoshone (2003), by Christin Ditchfield: Scholastic Library Publishing

The Indian Wars (2004), by Carol H. Behrman: Twenty-First Century Books

Legends Of The Kaw (2004), by Carrie De Voe: Kessinger Publishing

Warriors at the Little Bighorn 1876 (2004), by Richard Hook: Osprey Publishing

Rosebud Sioux (2005), by Donovin Arleigh Sprague: Arcadia Publishing

American Indian Biographies (2005), by Harvey Markowitz & Carole A. Barrett: Salem Press

A Danish Photographer Of Idaho Indians: Benedicte Wrensted (2005), by Joanna Cohan Scherer: University of Oklahoma Press

1491: New Revelations Of The Americas Before Columbus (2006), by Charles C. Mann: Random House Digital, Inc.

Oregon Indians: Voices From Two Centuries (2006), by Stephen Dow Beckham: Oregon State University Press

The Cherokee Indians (2006), by Bill Lund: Capstone Press

Indian Heroes and Great Chieftains (2007), by Charles A. Eastman: Echo Library

Black Elk Speaks (2008), by John G. Neihardt: SUNY Press

The Cherokee Nation: A History (2008), by Robert J. Conley: UNM Press

The Cherokee Nation And The Trail Of Tears (2008), by Theda Perdue & Michael D. Green: Penguin

Indian Tribes Of Oklahoma: A Guide (2009), by Blue Clark: University of Oklahoma Press

Cherokee: History and Culture (2011), by Helen Dwyer, D. L. Birchfield & Robert J. Conley: Gareth Stevens Publishing

Lakota Portraits: Lives Of The Legendary Plains People (2011), by Joseph Agonito: Globe Pequot

The Killing of Crazy Horse (2011), by Thomas Powers: Random House Digital, Inc.

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