Tuesday, 27 March 2012

Tribal Headdresses From Around The World ~ Part XI

Arapahoe (Arapaho) Tribe ~ Colorado, Wyoming & Oklahoma
Above left, Black Horse | Above right, Standing Elk
(Both photos above are hand-coloured platinum prints by F. A. [Frank A.] Rinehart ~ 1900)

Yellow Magpie

Above left, Black Otter | Above right, Arapahoe Chief

Above left, Little Bird | Above right, Little Bear

Above left, Black Man | Above right, Little Chief
(The seven photos above are all by F. A. [Frank A.] Rinehart ~ 1898)
The above nine photos are provided by Boston Public Library

Yellow Horse
(Photo provided by atomic.rooster [John McMannis])
The above ten images are courtesy of: http://www.flickr.com


There are two major branches of Arapahoe tribes: the Northern Arapahoe, who number around six thousand members and are concentrated mainly in Wyoming; and the Southern Arapahoe, who are united with their longtime allies, the Cheyenne Tribe into the Cheyenne-Arapahoe Nation in Oklahoma, with a combined total of eleven-thousand members.

Old Arapaho Storyteller
(Painting by James Bama)
Image courtesy of: http://www.artbarbarians.com

Above left, Little Bird | Above right, Black Horse
(The above two photos are by F. A. [Frank A.] Rinehart ~ 1898)

Above left, Scabby Bull ~ undated | Above right, Little Wolf ~ 1882
The above four images are courtesy of: http://www.firstpeople.us


The Arapaho were nomadic buffalo hunters, whose lifestyle in the 18th and 19th centuries corresponded closely to that of their traditional allies, such as the Cheyenne, Sioux and Gros Ventre, and their traditional enemies such as the Crow, Kiowa and Comanche. They were part of the classic High Plains culture, living in tepees and hunting buffalo on horseback. (Quoted from: The Arapaho Project)

Above & below, group photos of Arapahoe tribesmen


Above left & right, Big Mouth Hawk ~ 1872

Above left, Black Coyote ~ 1891 | Above right, Sharp Nose ~ 1882

Above left & right, Scabby Bull ~ 1891 (L) & 1898 (R)

Above left, Black Fox ~ 1898 | Above right, Big Fox ~ 1898

Above left, Circle Left Hand ~ 1908 | Above right, Big Boy ~ 1909

Above left, White Shirt ~ 1909 | Above right, Bird Chief ~ 1909

Above left, White Horse ~ 1882 | Above right, Yellow Horse ~ 1872

Black Crow, Left Hand & Scabby Bull ~ 1898

 Above left, Left Hand ~ 1898 | Above right, Heap Of Bears ~ 1872

Above left, Black Crow ~ 1872 | Above right, White Crow ~ 1872

 Above left, Iron ~ 1882 | Above right, Little Wolf ~ 1882

Little Bear ~ 1898

 Above left, Friday & Crazy Bull ~ 1873 | Above right, Medicine & Fool Dog ~ 1873

 Plenty Bears & Old Eagle ~ 1872

 Above left, Little Shield & his wife ~ 1900 | Above right, Powder Face & his wife ~ 1869
The twenty-nine images above are all courtesy of: Arapaho Gallery


Blackfoot or Blackfeet (Niitsitapi or Siksika) Tribe ~ Montana
Above left, John Grass ~ undated | Above right, Old Brass ~ undated

Above left, Little Bear Chief ~ 1893 | Above right, Shorty White Grass ~ 1891

Above left, Little Dog ~ 1903 | Above right, Running Crane ~ 1894

 Above left & right, Curly Bear ~ 1903

Above left, Bird Rattler ~ 1916 | Above right, Curly Bear ~ 1916

Above left, Wolf Plume ~ 1916 | Above right, Wolf Plume, Curly Bear & Bird Rattler ~ 1916
The above twelve images are courtesy of: http://www.firstpeople.us/

The Blackfeet are roving buffalo hunters. They are in many way similar to the Kiowa tribes in that they fight and hunt on horseback, live in skin tipis, practice no agriculture, use the same weapons, and have similar military organizations and tribal ceremonies. They dress in prairie moccasins, breech-cloth, and buckskin dress. The men wore the scalp-lock, usually having the rest of the hair braided and hanging down in front on each side of the head. With some of the Blackfeet, it was pushed up or reached over the forehead. The Blackfeet are very tall with a sinewy build and thin and clear cut features.” (Quoted from: Omaha Public Library, 1998)


 Above left,  Chief Mountain | Above right, Thunder Cloud
(The above two photos are by F. A. [Frank A.] Rinehart ~ 1898)
The above two photos are provided by Boston Public Library
Both images are courtesy of: http://www.flickr.com

Cheyenne Tribe ~ Oklahoma & Montana
Above left, Two Moons ~ 1913 | Above right, Thadeus Red Water ~ 1914

Above left, White Frog ~ 1907 | Above right, Wolf In The Middle ~ 1908

Wolf Robe ~ 1909

Above left, Magpie ~ 1924 | Above right, Wooden Leg ~ 1913

Above left, Porcupine ~ 1907 | Above right, Black Wolf ~ 1913

Big Horse ~ 1880

Above left, Bear Man ~ 1924 | Above right, Crazy Head ~ 1908

Above left, Lame Man ~ 1899 | Above right, Little Chief & Turkey Leg ~ 1899

 Above left, White Horse ~ 1895 | Above right, Prairie Chief ~ 1911

 Above left, Scabby ~ 1908 | Above right, Three Fingers ~ 1908

 Above left, Whirlwind ~ 1877 | Above right, White Bull 1897

A group of Cheyenne Indian tribesmen ~ 1924
The above twenty-one images are all courtesy of: http://www.firstpeople.us/

The Cheyenne tribe of Native American Indians were amongst what is now the most well known of plains Indian tribes. Often allying with the Sioux and Arapaho, the Cheyenne tribe originally lived in stationary villages in the eastern parts of the country and occupied much of what is now Minnesota until they migrated to the high plains in the early 1800s. They were divided into the Northern Cheyenne and Southern Cheyenne and ranged from the Missouri River to the Arkansas River.” (Quoted from: http://www.indians.org)

Red Bird, a Cheyenne Indian warrior in full feather war bonnet ~ 1927

The above two photos are of the daughter of Chief Bad Horses in a feather headdress ~ 1905

Porcupine, a Cheyenne man, wears a wreath of cottonwood leaves, possibly to protect his head from the sun during a "Sun Dance" ~ 1910

Valley Rosebud, a Cheyenne Chief ~ 1905

This Cheyenne Indian appears to be meditating on a rock known as "Medicine Rock" while smoking a Peace Pipe ~ 1907

Three Cheyenne warriors on horseback ~ 1905
(The above seven photos are all by by Edward S. Curtis)
The above seven images are courtesy of: http://www.old-picture.com

The Cheyenne are buffalo hunters of the plains and also have traditions of a time when they lived in the east and planted corn. Their tribal 'medicine' is a bundle of sacred arrows in the keeping of one of the southern bands. They are a proud, warlike people, who have left a strong impression on the history of the plains. The Cheyenne are considered to be an strongly conservative group. This tribe is devoted to the ghost dance and as a group are considered the most expert sign-talkers on the plains. (Quoted from: Omaha Public Library, 1998)

Above left, Hubble Big Horse | Above right, White Buffalo

Touch The Cloud

Above left & right, Three Fingers

Above left & right, Chief Wolf Robe
(The five photos above are all by F. A. [Frank A.] Rinehart ~ 1898 & 1899)
The above seven photos are provided by Boston Public Library
The above seven images are courtesy of: http://www.flickr.com

Crow Tribe (Absaroka, Apsáalooke, Apsaroke or Absarokee) ~ Montana & Wyoming
Above left & right, White Swan

Spotted Jack Rabbit

Above left & right, Spies On The Enemy
(The five photos above are all by F. A. [Frank A.] Rinehart ~ 1898)
The above five photos are provided by Boston Public Library


(The above five photos are provided by atomic.rooster [John McMannis])

The Crow were rich in horses obtained through trade and by stealing; they were known as the premier horse thieves of the Plains. Because they moved often and had great numbers of horses, the Crow acted as middlemen in the transfer of goods between various tribes. They also befriended fur traders and trappers and opened further trade opportunities by providing robes and furs to settlers.” (Quoted from: learner.org)

(The above nine photos are provided by ..:: karlito ::.. [Karlito Delacasa])
The above nineteen images are courtesy of: http://www.flickr.com

Above left & right, White Man Runs Him ~ 1912 (L) & 1913 (R)

Above left, White Bear ~ undated | Above right, two unidentified Crow Indians in War Bonnets ~ undated

Above left, Pretty Eagle ~ 1880 | Above right, Holds His Enemy (son of Pretty Eagle) ~ 1910

Plain Owl, Spotted Rabbit & Holds His Enemy ~ 1910

Bear Wolf with his wife, Stays With Horses ~ 1873

Above left, Curly (Curley), (scout for General Custer in 1876) | Above right, Old Coyote ~ undated

Above left & right, Medicine Crow ~ 1880 (L) & 1913 (R) 

Dreamer ~ undated

Above left & right, Plenty Coups ~ 1913 (L) & 1905 (R)

Above left, Plenty Coups & Big Shoulder Blade ~ 1905 | Above right, Packs The Hat ~ 1910

Little Crow ~ undated

A group photo of Crow Indian tribesmen ~ 1880
The above nineteen images are all courtesy of: http://www.firstpeople.us

Contemplation ~ 2006

Above left, Defiant ~ 2007 | Above right, Fearless ~ 2008

Above left, Stately Individual ~ 2009 | Above right, Impressive Stature ~ 2009

Above left, Distinctive Appearance ~ 2010 | Above right, Distant Gaze ~ 2009
(The seven paintings above are by James Ayers)
(The seven images above are courtesy of: James Ayers Studios)

Dakota Sioux (Santee) Tribe ~ Minnesota
Chief Sitting Bull (Tatanka-Iyotanka) ~ (1831-1890)
(Painting by James Ayers | Portraits of Honor ~ 2010)
(Both images above are courtesy of: James Ayers Studios)


Above left, Chief Picket Pin ~ ca. 1900 | Above right, Red Fish ~ undated
The above two images are courtesy of: http://www.firstpeople.us/

Chief Sitting Bull
Image courtesy of: http://edoc.hu-berlin.de


Above left, Red Dog (Shunka Luta) ~ 1907 | Above right, Stinking Bear ~ 1905

Sioux Chief ~ 1907

Sioux chief in a War Bonnet ~ 1907

 Above left, Sioux Chiefs ~ 1905 | Above right, Sioux Indian with a pipe ~ 1907

Sioux Warriors ~ 1905
(The above seven photographs are by Edward S. Curits)
The above seven images are courtesy of: http://www.old-picture.com

The name 'Sioux' is an abbreviation of the French corruption Nadaouesioux of the Algonquian name Nadowesiwug, which means 'little snakes.' The Sioux referred to themselves as Dakotas, which means 'allies.' The Sioux were divided into seven clans, and the name they often used was, Otceti Cakowin, which means 'the seven council-fires.'”


 Sunflower ~ 1899

Above left, Joseph Two Bulls ~ 1900 | Above right, Goose Face ~ 1900
(The above three photos are by Heyn & Matzen)

The above two photos are of Amos Two Bulls ~ ca. 1900
(Both photos are by Gertrude Käsebier)
(The above five photos are provided by trialsanderrors)

Kicks Iron (Photo by F.B. Fiske ~ ca. 1905)
(The above photo is provided by  vegienytx)

Wanduta (Red Arrow) ~ ca. 1913
(Photo by H.W. Gould)
(Photo is provided by  BiblioArchives / LibraryArchives)
The above seven images are courtesy of: http://www.flickr.com

Chief Red Cloud (Mahpiya Lutu)
(Painting by James Ayers | Portraits of Honor ~ 2010)
(Both images above are courtesy of: James Ayers Studios)

The Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux (Dakota) Community is a federally recognized Indian tribe formally organized under federal reservation status in 1969. Tribal members are direct lineal descendants of Mdewakanton Dakota people who resided in villages near the banks of the lower Minnesota River... Tribal lands are located in Prior Lake and Shakopee, Minnesota.” (Quoted from: Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community)


The above two photos are of the Dakota Sioux artist Greg Red Elk (He-Haka-Duta)
Left image is courtesy of: Richard's Silver City NM Blog | Right image is courtesy of: kazeo


Hidatsa Tribe ~ North Dakota
 Above left, White Duck, a  Hidatsa Warrior | Above right, Rabbit Head, a Hidatsa Warrior

An unidentified Hidatsa Indian
(The three photos above were taken in 1908 by Edward S. Curtis )
The above three images are courtesy of: http://www.old-picture.com/

The above five photos are of Lean Wolf ~ 1880

Old Dog ~ 1912
The above six images are courtesy of: Thunder Dreamers

(Photo by gypsyship ~ March 24, 2007)

Rusty Gillette (whose Indian name is “Hooves”), is a member of the Arikara/Hidatsa Tribe and a world class Grass Dancer from the Fort Berthold Reservation in White Shield, North Dakota.
Rusty Gillette is a member of the Dead Grass Society.
(The above three photos are by USDAgov [U.S. Department of Agriculture] ~ November 9, 2010)

 (The above two photos of Rusty Gillette are by nativeboy40 ~ July 30, 2009)
The above six images are all courtesy of: http://www.flickr.com


Mandan Tribe ~ North Dakota
Above left, Me Ra Pa Ra Pa (Lance) ~ 1874 | Above right, Little John ~ 1880
The above two images are courtesy of: http://www.firstpeople.us

With their Hidatsa friends and neighbors, the Mandan Indians lay at the center of trade along the Upper Missouri River, inhabiting what is now central North Dakota... In Mandan culture, the village was the focus of political, economic and ceremonial activity. It represented a collective of households, all striving together to better each family, clan and the village itself. A sacred cedar post stood at the center of the Mandan village, symbolizing the tribe’s primary cultural hero. The post was surrounded by an open plaza, and at the north end of the plaza was the village’s primary medicine lodge. Forty or fifty additional lodges populated the plaza. The more powerful a family was, or the more significant that family’s ceremonial duties were, the closer its lodge would be to the center.”
(Quoted from: http://www.pbs.org

Above left, Spotted Bull (photo by E. S. Curtis) | Above right, Yellow Owl (photo by W. A. Rogers)
The two images above are courtesy of: National Geographic Society

Oglala Sioux Tribe ~ South Dakota
Above left, Chief Little Horse ~ ca. 1899 | Above right, Chief Many Horses ~ undated

Above left & right, Afraid Of Hawk ~ ca. 1899

Above left & right, Chief American Horse ~ undated (L) & 1898 (R)

Above left & right, Chief American Horse ~ 1877 (L) & 1880 & (R) 

Black Bear ~ undated

Above left & right, Chief Jack Red Cloud ~ 1898 (L) & 1913 (R)

 Afraid Of Eagle ~ 1896
(Photo by Frank A. Rinehart)

 Above left, Afraid Of Eagle  1872 | Above right, Dirt face ~ 1872

Above left, Fast Thunder ~ undated | Above right, Fast Thunder & Spotted Horse ~ undated

Above left, Conquering Bear ~ undated | Above right, Crazy Bear ~ undated

Above left & right, He Dog ~ ca. 1875

Above left & right, Rocky Bear ~  1886

Above left & right, Red Shirt ~ 1885 (L) & 1909 (R)

Above left, Joseph Help ~ 1899 | Above right, Richard White Bull ~ 1899

Iron Tail (Sinte Maza ) ~ 1880

Above left & right, Iron Tail (Sinte Maza ) ~ 1913 (L) & 1916 (R)

Little Wound ~ 1877

Above left & right, Little Wound ~ 1896

Above left & right, Painted Horse ~ ca. 1880 (L) & 1909 (R)

Spotted Horse ~ 1898

Above left, Yellow Buffalo Bull ~ 1910 | Above right, Yellow Wolf ~ 1907

Stabber ~ 1872

Above left, Bear Shield ~ 1910 | Above right, Roan Horse ~ 1907

Above left, Oscar Whetstone ~ 1907 | Above right, Red Hawk ~ 1913

Above left, Chase At Dawn ~ 1909 | Above right, Red Hawk & American Horse ~ dateless

Above left & right, Chief Eagle Horn ~ 1907 (L) & 1910 (R)

Above left, Eagle House ~ 1904 | Above right, Good Voiced Crow ~ 1910

 Above left & right, Last Horse ~ 1899
(Both photos are by Frank A. Rinehart)

Kills Alone ~ 1899

Above left & right, Chief Red Cloud in his war bonnet ~ undated

Jack Red Cloud (son of Red Cloud) ~ 1913

Above left & right, Jim Red Cloud (grandson of Red Cloud) ~ 1899 (L) & 1904 (R)
(The above left photo is by Frank A. Rinehart)

Above left & right, Milk ~ 1884

Above left, Shout At ~ 1899 | Above right, (Paul) Bear Robe ~ ca. 1910

Above left, Thomas No Water ~ 1899 | Above right, Thomas White Face ~ 1899

Above left & right, William Lip ~ 1909

Above left & right, Charles Turning Hawk ~ 1906 (L) & 1909 (R)

Above left, Walks Under Ground ~ 1907 | Above right, White Mouse ~ 1910
The above sixty-eight images are all courtesy of: http://www.firstpeople.us

Above right, Red Cloud, “Makhpia-sha,” Oglala Sioux Chief
(Photo by David F. Barry ~ 1897)
(The above photo is provided by vegienytx)

 Above left, Fast Thunder ~ 1900 | Above right, Thomas American Horse
(The above two photos are by Heyn & Matzen)
(The above two photos are provided by trialsanderrors)
The above three images are courtesy of: http://www.flickr.com

Osage Tribe ~ Oklahoma

The above two photos of Osage Indian men are unidentified & undated

Pe Tse Mo Ie ~ 1913

Above left, Black Dog ~ 1876 | Above right, Black Dog & Not Afraid Of Pawnees ~ 1877

Above left & right, Bacon Rind ~ 1900

 Above left & right, Bacon Rind ~ 1906 (L) & 1916 (R)

Above left, Bacon Rind ~ 1909 | Above right, Makes Them Cry ~ 1913

Above left, Playful Sun Carrier ~ 1908 | Above right, Playful Chief ~ 1900

Above left & right, Generous ~ 1911 (L) & 1913 (R)

The above photo shows two unidentified Osage Indian tribesmen with Westerners ~ 1877
The above sixteen images are courtesy of: http://www.firstpeople.us/

Piegan Tribe ~ Province of Alberta, Canada & Montana
Above left, Chief Weasel Tail ~ 1900 | Above right, Crow Eagle ~ undated
Left image, courtesy of: http://wp-b.com | Right image, courtesy of: http://www.firstpeople.us
(The above left photo of Chief Weasel Tail is by Edward S. Curtis)

Above left, Mike Shortman, a Piegan warrior ~ 1910 | Above right, Wades In Water ~ 1910

Above left, an unidentified Piegan Warrior dressed in a War-bonnet & holding a Coup-stick ~ 1910
Above right, Running Owl, a Piegan Brave ~ 1910

Above left, a Piegan Indian wears a sacred headdress made of ermine tails, feathers, and bunches of grass ~ 1910
 Above right, Tearing Lodge & his wife ~ 1910

 Above left, Wife of Weasel Head ~ 1910
(The above seven photos are by Edward S. Curtis)
The above seven images are courtesy of: http://www.old-picture.com/

The Piegan Indians are one of the three major Blackfeet tribes: the Blood, the Blackfeet, and the Piegan. The Piegan are part of the present-day Blackfeet Nation. (Source: https://www.familysearch.org)

The above two photos, Piegan Indian Warriors ~ undated
(Both photos are by Edward S. Curtis)
The above two images are courtesy of: National Geographic Society


Ponca Tribe ~ Nebraska
 Above left, Standing Buffalo Bull ~ 1877 | Above right, Hairy Grizzly Bear ~ 1877

Above left, White Swan ~ 1877 | Above right, Black Crow ~ 1877

Above left & right, Dust Maker (Peter Mitchell) ~ 1898
(The two photos above are by Frank A. Rinehart)

Above left, White Eagle ~ 1877 | Above right, Horse Chief (son of White Eagle) ~ 1906

Yellow Buffalo Bull ~ 1914

Above left, Hairy Grizzly Bear ~ 1906 | Above right, Hairy Grizzly Bear ~ 1899

Above left & right, Raises The Dust ~ 1898

Above left, Thomas Cry ~ 1898 | Above right, Walks With Effort ~ 1914

Above left & right, Standing Bear ~ 1881

Above left, Big Goose ~ 1914 | Above right, Fire Shaker ~ 1914

Above left & right, Little Soldier (Wa-non'-she-zhin-ga) ~ 1914 (L) & 1906 (R)

Above left, Yellow Horse (brother of Standing Bear) ~ 1906 | Above right, White Tail ~ 1906

Above left, Crazy Bear ~ 1914 | Above right, White Chief ~ 1906
The above twenty-five images are all courtesy of: http://www.firstpeople.us

Big Elk, Standing Buffalo Bull, White Eagle & Standing Bear
Standing: John Baptist LeClair and Charles LeClair  ~ ca. 1877
Image courtesy of: http://www.poncatribe-ne.org


Tribal Maps of the Indian Nations of North America

Suggested readings:

The Sioux: Life and Customs of A Warrior Society (1988), by Royal B. Hassrick: University of Oklahoma Press

The Osage (1988), by Terry P. Wilson & Frank W. Porter: Chelsea House

History of Cheyenne, Wyoming (1989), by Sharon Lass Field: Curtis Media Corp.

Hidatsa Social & Ceremonial Organization (1992), by Alfred W. Bowers: University of Nebraska Press

The Arapaho Indians (1993), by Vicki Haluska: Chelsea House Publishers

The Crow Indians (1993), by Leigh Hope Wood: Chelsea House Publishers

Myths and Traditions of the Crow Indians (1993), by Robert Harry Lowie: University of Nebraska Press

Parading Through History: The Making of the Crow Nation in America, 1805-1935 (1995), by Frederick E. Hoxie: Cambridge University Press

To Be An Indian: An Oral History (1995), by Joseph H. Cash: Minnesota Historical Society Press

The Osage In Missouri (1997), by Kristie C. Wolferman: University of Missouri Press

Cheyenne Memories (1998), by John Stands In Timber, Margot Liberty & Robert Marshall Utley: Yale University Press

Indians of Arizona: Past and Present (1999), by Donald B. Ricky & Frank H. Gille: North American Book Dist LLC

From The Heart of the Crow Country: The Crow Indians' Own Stories (2000), by Joseph Medicine Crow & Herman J. Viola: University of Nebraska Press

The Standing Bear Controversy: Prelude to Indian Reform (2003), by Valerie Sherer Mathes & Richard Lowitt: University of Illinois Press

A History of The Osage People (2004), by Louis F. Burns: University of Alabama Press

The Crow Indians (2004), by Robert H. Lowie & Phenocia Bauerle: University of Nebraska Press

Standing Bear Is A Person: The True Story of a Native American's Quest For Justice (2005), by Stephen Dando-Collins: Da Capo Press

The Columbia Guide To American Indians of the Great Plains (2005), by Loretta Fowler: Columbia University Press

My People The Sioux (2006), by Luther Standing Bear, Earl Alonzo Brininstool & Richard N. Ellis: University of Nebraska Press

Life Among the Texas Indians: The WPA Narratives (2006), by David La Vere: Texas A&M University Press

Arapaho (2007), by Barbara A. Gray-Kanatiiosh: ABDO

Blood And Thunder: The Epic Story of Kit Carson and the Conquest of the American West (2007), by Hampton Sides: Random House Digital, Inc.

Where The Lightning Strikes: The Lives of American Indian Sacred Places (2007), by Peter Nabokov: Penguin

American Indians of the Pikes Peak Region (2008), by Celinda R. Kaelin & Pikes Peak Historical Society: Arcadia Publishing

The Cheyenne Indians: Their History And Lifeways (2008), by George Bird Grinnell & Joseph A. Fitzgerald: World Wisdom, Inc.

Mythology of the Blackfoot Indians (2008), by Alice Beck Kehoe & Darrell KippUniversity of Nebraska Press

The Religion of the Crow Indians (2009), by Robert Harry Lowie: BiblioLife

The Social Life of the Blackfoot Indians (2010), by Clark Wissler: General Books LLC

Social Organization And Ritualistic Ceremonies of the Blackfoot Indians (2010), by Clark Wissler: BiblioBazaar

The World Of The American West (2010), by Gordon Morris Bakken: Taylor & Francis US

I Am A Man: Chief Standing Bull's Journey For Justice (2010), by Joe Starita: Macmillan

Empire of Shadows: The Epic Story of Yellowstone (2012), by George Black: Macmillan