Thursday, 26 April 2012

Tribal Headdresses From Around The World ~ Part XII

Assiniboine (Assinaboine) Tribe ~ Montana
Above left & right, Cloud Man ~ 1898

Above left, Four Bull ~ 1898 | Above right, The Man ~ 1898

The Assiniboine, who called themselves 'Nakota,' meaning 'The Generous Ones,' are of Yanktonai Sioux ancestry. They initially lived in the Rainy Lake and Land of the Woods area along the Canadian border, and moved westward to the northern plains region in the early 1700's, searching for food. To facilitate hunting, the tribe broke into two bands, one group remaining in the northern plains to hunt bison. Before 1774, the Assiniboine divided again, with some moving south and west along the Missouri River. Epidemics ravaged their numbers, necessitating an alliance with the Cree against their common enemy, the Blackfeet. The Assiniboine were traditionally considered excellent hunters and horsemen. (Quoted from: Carleton College)

Above left, Kill Spotted Horse ~ 1898 | Above right, Chief Wetsit ~ 1898
The above six images are all courtesy of:

Comanche Tribe ~ Southwest Oklahoma
Above left & right, Albert Atocni ~ 1926

Above left, Nau-Nooh ~ 1910 | Above right, Pebo ~ undated

Above left, The Milky Way (Tsa-ha-bith) ~ 1872 | Above right, Andrew (Perd A Sof Py) ~ undated

Tenikwa ~ 1919

Above left & right, unidentified Comanche Indian men ~ 1891
The above nine images are all courtesy of:

Chippewa (Ojibwe, Ojibwa or Ojibway) Tribe ~
Canada & United States
 Above left, William Potter ~ 1911 | Above right, High Up In The Sky ~ 1901

Above left, Little Shell ~ 1874 | Above right, The Waving Plume ~ 1898

 Above left & right, Swift Feather ~ 1899

Sky Striking The Earth ~ 1899

The Chippewa Indians, also known as the Ojibway or Ojibwe, lived mainly in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Ontario. ...The Chippewas were allies of the French and French traders often married Chippewa women. Chippewa warriors fought with the French against the British in the French and Indian War. But political alliances changed with the times. During the American Revolution the Chippewas sided with the British against the Americans.”

 Above left, Arrow Maker | Above right, Chief Obtossaway

Alek Wabunosa

The Ojibwe (said to mean "Puckered Moccasin People"), also known as the Chippewa, are a group of Algonquian-speaking bands who amalgamated as a tribe in the 1600's. They were primarily hunters and fishermen, as the climate of the UP was too cool for farming. A few bands of Ojibwe lived in southern Michigan, where they subsisted principally by hunting, though all had summer residences, where they raised min-dor-min (corn), potatoes, turnips, beans, and sometimes squashes, pumpkins, and melons.” (Quoted from: Ojibwe Indians)

Little Wolf ~ 1908

Above left & right, Flat Mouth ~ 1899

Above left, Ojibwe Indian man ~ 1899 | Above right, One Called From A Distance ~ 1894

 Above left & right, Chief Kenawash ~ undated

Above left, The Round Earth ~ 1908 | Above right, Like A Bird ~ undated

Above left & right, Chief Big Dog ~ undated

Above left, Chief Little White Cloud ~ undated | Above right, Mountain Chief ~ undated

Above left, Bemos A Geshig ~ undated | Above right, Sound Of Eating ~ 1901

Above left, Joe Broad ~ 1908 | Above right, Rocky Boy (Stone Child) ~ undated

George Burnette ~ 1907

A group of Ojibwe tribesmen ~ 1911
The above twenty-nine images are all courtesy of:

Cree Tribe ~ Canada & United States
Above left, Cree Indian ~ 1903 | Above right, One of the Past ~ 1904
(The above two photos are by G. E. Fleming )
Left image, courtesy of: | Right image, courtesy of:

Bob Tail, Cree Chief ~ undated
Image courtesy of:

A Cree Indian Calling a moose ~ 1927
(Photo are by Edward S. Curtis)
Image courtesy of:

He Shows His Blood ~ undated
(Photo by G. E. Fleming)

The Cree were known to French traders and missionaries as early as the first half of the seventeenth century, and about the end of that century they rose to a position of importance owing to the use made of them as guides and hunters in the prosecution of the fur trade. The English first came in contact with them through the posts of the Hudson's Bay Company established in their territory on Hudson Bay beginning in 1667 and for a time there was great rivalry between the French and English for their favor and patronage. At an early period the Cree formed an alliance with the Assiniboin, who wished to be on good terms with them so that they could have access to the Hudson Bay posts where they could obtain guns and powder to assist them in their wars with their kindred, the Dakota. This alliance also enabled the Cree to push southward as far as Red River and territories of the present United States. (Quoted from: Canadian Genealogy)

(The above two photos are by Christian Patrick Ricci ~ June 28, 2010)

Dallas Arcan, a Cree Indian from Alberta
(Photo by kharris411 ~ February 5, 2006)
The above four images are courtesy of:

The Cree Indians are a vast tribe of Native Americans who reside in various parts of North America. These locations include the Rocky Mountain and areas along the Atlantic Coast. In Canada, the Cree Indians heavily populate Quebec and Saskatchewan. Similar to other Indian tribes, there are several bands of Cree Indians. [There are eight major groups that form the Cree Nation.] These bands consist of the James Bay Cree, Woodland [or Woods] Cree, Plain[s] Cree Indians, etc. [The other five tribes being: Attikamekw Cree, Montagnais Cree, Moose Cree, Naskapi Cree, and Swampy Cree] ...Within Canada, there are over 135 different bands of Cree Indians. Between Canada and the United States, there are approximately 200,000 Cree Indians. (Quoted from:

Charles L. Tailfeathers
(Photo by Tony Arruza/Corbis)
Image  courtesy of:

Hunkpapa Lakota Sioux Tribe ~ North & South Dakota

 Thunder Hawk ~ 1872

Above left & right, Walking Shooter (Shoots While He Is Walking) ~ 1872

Above left, Bear's Rib ~ 1872 | Above right, Black Horn ~ 1872

 Above left & right, Bloody Mouth ~ 1872

Above left, Good Hawk ~ 1872 | Above right, Lost Medicine ~ 1872

Above left & right, Iron Horn ~ 1872

Above left & right, Running Antelope ~ 1872

Above left & right, Sitting Buffalo Bull ~ ca. 1884

Above left, Bull Rushes ~ 1872 | Above right, Rain In The Face ~ 1880

Above left & right, Rain In The Face ~ undated
The above nineteen images are all courtesy of:

Iowa Tribe ~ Oklahoma
Above left, Holy Rabbit ~ 1898 | Above right, Deer Ham ~ 1869

Above left, Little Chief ~ 1869 | Above right, Nag A Rash ~ 1896

Above left, British ~ 1869 | Above right, Bear ~ 1869

Above left & right, Deer Thigh ~ 1869

Above left & right, group photos of Iowa Indian men ~ 1900 (L) & 1903 (R)

Above left, Victor Dupee ~ 1900 | Above right, Emi Dughra (John Ford) ~ 1901

Above left & right, Blue Hair ~ 1900 (L) & 1901 (R)

Above left, Joseph Springer ~ 1901 | Above right, Jessee Kirk & Joseph Springer ~ 1901

Ben Hallowell ~ 1903
The above seventeen images are all courtesy of:

Kiowa Tribe ~ Oklahoma
Above left & right, Pablino Diaz ~ 1898 (L) & 1899 (R)

Above left, Chief White Man ~ 1898 | Above right, Kiowa Indians ~ 1898

Above left, Inali ~ 1892 | Above right, Wooden Lance ~ undated

The above three photos are of an unidentified Kiowa man ~ 1898

Six Toes ~ 1898

Above left, Sleeping Wolf & Squaw ~ 1872 | Above right, an unidentified Kiowa Indian ~ 1899

Above left & right, unidentified Kiowa Indian men ~ 1898

Above left, Wooden Lance ~ 1894 | Above right, Two Hatchet ~ 1898

Above left, Gonkon ~ 1894 | Above right, Emhaua (Rescuer) & his wife ~ 1913

White Horse (Blanc Horse) ~ undated
The above nineteen images are all courtesy of:

Otoe- (Oto-) Missouria Tribe ~ Oklahoma
Above left, Crawfish Maker ~ 1880 | Above right, Big Black Bear ~ 1884

Above left & right, Standing Eating ~ 1884

Above left, Little Pipe ~ 1869 | Above right, Makes A Noise ~ 1884

Above left, Batiste De Roin ~ 1880 | Above right, Chas Baddle ~ 1898

Above left, Far Away ~ 1884 | Above right, James Whitewater ~ 1898

Above left, Robert Headman ~ 1898 | Above right, Iron Man Coming ~ 1895

Above left, Standing Bear ~ 1900 | Above right, Red Bear ~ 1908

Above left, Prairie Turtle ~ 1894 | Above right, It Is Him ~ 1907

Above left, William Faw Faw ~ undated | Above right, Brother of John Pipestem & his wife ~ 1906
The above eighteen images are all courtesy of:

A group of Otoe tribesmen ~ undated
Image courtesy of:

Pawnee Tribe ~ Oklahoma
Above left & right, Brave Chief (Lisha Lalahikots) ~ undated

Above left & right, Man Chief (Peta La Sha Ra) ~ ca. 1858

The Pawnee Tribe has a long and proud history going back over 700 years. At one time, early in the 19th century, there were over 10,000 members of the Pawnee Tribe along the North Platt River in Nebraska.

The Pawnee villages consisted of dome-shaped, earth-covered lodges with a diameter of 25 to 60 feet with a long entrance leading towards the East. A center pit dug three to four feet in diameter served as a fireplace. These lodges housed extended families.

The Tribe then, as it is now, was composed of four distinct bands: the Chaui 'Grand'; the Kitkehahki, 'Republican;' the Pitahawirata; 'Tappage;' and Skidi, 'Wolf.' Each band went on separate hunts and often fought separate battles.

Before the middle of the 19th century, the Tribe was stricken with smallpox and cholera. A great loss of life occurred and by 1900, the tribe's membership was decreased to approximately 600.

The Pawnees were well known for their ability to raid neighboring tribes and acquire their horses. They set out on foot and brought back hundreds of horses, especially from the tribes to the South and Southwest. Horses gave the Pawnees the mobility that made them a name to be feared by their enemies. (Quoted from: Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma)

Above left, Good Fox ~ undated | Above right, Good Chief ~ undated

Above left, Roaming Chief ~ undated | Above right, Eagle Chief ~ 1905

A group of Pawnee Indian men ~ 1868
The above nine images are all courtesy of:

Sicangu (Brulé [Sioux] or Burnt Thigh) Tribe ~  South Dakota
 Above left & right, Iron Nation ~ 1867

Above left & right, Iron Shell ~ 1872

Above left, Black Crow ~ 1872 | Above right, an unidentified Brulé Indian ~ undated

Above left & right, White Thunder ~ ca. 1880

Two Strike ~ 1872

Above left, White Thunder ~ 1872 | Above right, Charging Hawk ~ 1872

Above left, Fool Bull, a Brulé medicine man ~ undated | Above right, High Horse ~ 1900

Above left, Short Bull ~ undated | Above right, Stranger Horse ~ undated

Above left, Dead Hand ~ 1880 | Above right, White Ghost ~ 1880

 Above left, Bear Foot ~ 1899 | Above right, Bear Ghost ~ ca. 1908-1913

Above left, Big Man ~ 1913 | Above right, Paul Strange Horse ~ 1905

Eagle Horse ~ 1909

Above left & right, Turning Bear ~ undated

Above left, James High Pipe ~ 1905 | Above right, Alfred Bone Shirt ~ 1925

Above left, Chief Iron Shell ~ 1900 | Above right, Goes To War ~ undated

Above left & right, Hollow Horn Bear (son of Iron Shell) ~ 1900 (L) & 1909 (R)

Above left & right,  Hollow Horn Bear (son of Iron Shell) ~ 1905

Above left, Paul Crow Eagle ~ 1907 | Above right, Young Bear ~ 1909

Above left, Miles Turner, Amos White Swan & Grabbing Bear ~ 1906 | Above right, an unidentified  Brulé Indian ~ undated
The above thirty-six images are all courtesy of:

Yankton (Yanktonai) Sioux Tribe ~  South Dakota
Above left & right, Standing Sacred Buffalo Cow ~ 1867

 Above left & right, Long Foot ~ 1867

Above left, Little Thunder ~ 1867 | Above right, Two Lances ~ 1867

Above left, The Bird ~ 1867 | Above right, Two Grizzly Bears ~ 1872

Above left, Afraid Of The Bear ~ 1872 | Above right, Big Head ~ 1872

Above left, Buffalo Bulls Ghost ~ 1872 | Above right, First To Kill ~ 1867

Standing Elk ~ 1867

 Above left & right, Black Eye ~ 1872
Above left, Big Blade ~ 1872 | Above right, Feather In The Ear ~ 1867

Above left, First To Catch Enemy ~ 1867 | Above right, Flying Pipe ~ 1867

Above left, Black Eagle ~ 1867 | Above right, Sacred Buffalo Bull ~ 1867

Above left, Red Lodge ~ 1872 | Above right, Yellow Thunder ~ 1905

Above left, Thunder Horse ~ 1904 | Above right, a Yankton Sioux Warrior ~ undated

Pretty Voice Eagle ~ ca. 1908

 Above left & right, Yellow Earth ~ 1903

 Above left & right, Yellow Earth ~ 1903

Above left, Charging Bear ~ 1905 | Above right, Black Chicken or Prairie Hen ~ 1905

The above two group photos are of Yankton tribesmen ~ 1905

Shooting Hawk ~ 1905

Above left, Iron Owl ~ 1905 | Above right, Not Afraid Of Pawnee ~ 1905

Above left & right, No Heart ~ ca. 1912 or 1913

Above left, Eagle Dog ~ 1908 | Above right, Iron Bear ~ 1904

Above left & right, two Yanktonai Indians ~ 1904

Above left, Buffalo Boy ~ 1912 | Above right, Claude Iron Cedar ~ 1912

Above right, Red Fish ~ 1912 | Above left, an unidentified Yankton Indian ~ undated
Above left & right, unidentified Yanktoni Indians ~ undated

Above left & right, White Swan ~ 1905
The above fifty-one images are all courtesy of:

The above two maps of the United States of America & North America are courtesy of: (L) & (R) 

Map of Nebraska courtesy of:

The above two maps of Iowa & Montana are courtesy of:

Map of North Dakota courtesy of:

Map of South Dakota courtesy of:

1895 Indian Territory ~ Oklahoma map courtesy of:

Suggested readings:

The People Named The Chippewa: Narrative Histories (1984), by Gerald Robert Vizenor: University of Minnesota Press

Ojibway Heritage (1987), by Basil Johnston: McClelland & Stewart

The Pawnee Indians (1988), by George E. Hyde: University of Oklahoma Press

The Plains Cree: Trade, Diplomacy and War, 1790-1870 (1990), by John Sheridan Milloy: University of Manitoba Press

The Chippewas of Lake Superior (1990), by Edmund Jefferson Danziger: University of Oklahoma Press

The Assiniboine (1992), by Edwin Thompson Denig & John Napoleon Brinton HewittUniversity of Oklahoma Press

The Lance and The Shield: The Life and Times of Sitting Bull (1993), by Robert Marshall Utley: Random House of Canada

Comanches: The Destruction of a People (1994), by T. R. Fehrenbach: Da Capo Press

An Unspeakable Sadness: The Dispossession of the Nebraska Indians (1995), by David J. Wishart: University of Nebraska Press

The Last Comanche Chief: The Life and Times of Quanah Parker (1996), by Bill Neeley: John Wiley & Sons

Indians of Oregon (1999), by Frank H. Gille, Donald B. Ricky & Somerset Publishers: North American Book Dist LLC

Red Cloud: Warrior-Statesman of the Lakota Sioux (1999), by Robert W. Larson: University of Oklahoma Press

Tribes of the Sioux Nation (2000), by Michael Johnson & Jonathan Smith: Osprey Publishing

Sitting Bull (2001), by Hal Marcovitz: Chelsea House Publishers

The Long Death: The Last Days of the Plains Indians (2001), by Ralph K. Andrist: University of Oklahoma Press

Comanches: The History of A People (2003), by T. R. Fehrenbach: Random House Digital, Inc.

The Indian Frontier: 1846-1890 (2003), by Robert Marshall Utley: UNM Press

The Pawnee: Farmers and Hunters of the Central Plains (2003), by Karen Bush Gibson: Capstone Press

Pine Ridge Reservation (2004), by Donovin Arleigh Sprague: Arcadia Publishing

The Comanche Indians (2005), by Bill Lund: Capstone Press

Rosebud Sioux (2005), by Donovin Arleigh Sprague: Arcadia Publishing

Big Bear: The End of Freedom (2007), by Hugh A. Dempsey: CPRC Press

Gall: Lakota War Chief (2007), by Robert W. Larson: University of Oklahoma Press

Sitting Bull (2008), by Bill Yenne: Westholme Publishing

Crazy Horse: A Lakota Life (2008), by Kingsley M. Bray: University of Oklahoma Press

The History of the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana, 1800-2000 (2008), by David Miller, Dennis J Smith, Joseph R. McGeshick, James Shanley & Caleb Shields: Montana Historical Society

The Comanche Empire (2008), by Pekka Hämäläinen & William P. Clements Center for Southwest Studies: Yale University Press

Crazy Horse: The Life Behind the Legend (2009), by Mike Sajna: Book Sales, Inc.

The Indians of Iowa (2009), by Lance M. Foster: University of Iowa Press

Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West (2009), by Dee Brown, & Hampton Sides: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.

Ojibwe Waasa Inaabidaa: We Look In All Directions (2009), by Thomas Peacock, Marlene Wisuri, & Winona LaDuke: Minnesota Historical Society

Indian Nations of North America (2010), by National Geographic, Rick Hill, Herman Viola, George Horsecapture & Teri Frazier: Random House of Canada

Lakota Portraits: Lives of the Legendary Plains People (2011), by Joseph Agonito: Globe Pequot

The Promised Land: Settling The West 1896-1914 (2011), by Pierre Berton: Random House Digital, Inc.