Monday, 25 June 2012

Tribal Headdresses From Around The World ~ Part XIV

Cowichan (Coast Salish) Tribe ~ Vancouver Island, British Columbia
Above left, a Cowichan Warrior in a feather headdress | Above right, a masked Cowichan dancer
(Both photos are by Edward S. Curtis ~ 1913)
Above left image: | Above right image:

We have owned and occupied our territory for thousands of years. Archaeological evidence dates our existence as long ago as 4,500 years, but our historical memory says that we have been here since time immemorial.

While we have evolved into a modern society, many of our cultural practices and traditions have been carried on for generations, and are still woven into our culture today. (Quoted from: Cowichan Tribes)

 (The above five photos are by glassghost ~ August 11, 2008)
The above five images are courtesy of:



Iriquois (Iroquois) Tribe ~ New York State, Ohio, Ontario & Québec
Above left, Portrait of Hodjiage De (Fish Carrier) | Above right, Chief Gadj Nonda He (Robert David)

Jesse Martin & his Great Niece
The above three images are courtesy of:

(The above four photos are by dpape [Dave Pape] ~ August 29, 2010)

(The above photo is by vivekar [Vivek K] ~ July 2, 2011)

(Photo by sh1mm3r [Jenny] ~ September 24, 2005)

(The above two photos are by A Man Called ACME ~ September 4, 2010)

(The above seven photos are by Kris Kumar [Krishna Kumar] ~ August 31, 2008)
The above fifteen images are courtesy of:

The original homeland of the Iroquois was in upstate New York between the Adirondack Mountains and Niagara Falls. Through conquest and migration, they gained control of most of the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. At its maximum in 1680, their empire extended west from the north shore of Chesapeake Bay through Kentucky to the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers; then north following the Illinois River to the south end of Lake Michigan; east across all of lower Michigan, southern Ontario and adjacent parts of southwestern Quebec; and finally south through northern New England west of the Connecticut River through the Hudson and upper Delaware Valleys across Pennsylvania back to the Chesapeake. With two exceptions - the Mingo occupation of the upper Ohio Valley and the Caughnawaga migration to the upper St. Lawrence - the Iroquois did not, for the most part, physically occupy this vast area but remained in their upstate New York villages.

 Image courtesy of:

During the hundred years preceding the American Revolution, wars with French-allied Algonquin and British colonial settlement forced them back within their original boundaries once again. Their decision to side with the British during the Revolutionary War was a disaster for the Iroquois. The American invasion of their homeland in 1779 drove many of the Iroquois into southern Ontario where they have remained. With large Iroquois communities already located along the upper St. Lawrence in Quebec at the time, roughly half of the Iroquois population has since lived in Canada. This includes most of the Mohawk along with representative groups from the other tribes. Although most Iroquois reserves are in southern Ontario and Quebec, one small group (Michel's band) settled in Alberta during the 1800s as part of the fur trade.

In the United States, much of the Iroquois homeland was surrendered to New York land speculators in a series of treaties following the Revolutionary War. Despite this, most Seneca, Tuscarora, and Onondaga avoided removal during the 1830s and have remained in New York. There are also sizeable groups of Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, and Caughnawaga still in the state. Most of the Oneida, however, relocated in 1838 to a reservation near Green Bay, Wisconsin. The Cayuga sold their New York lands in 1807 and moved west to join the Mingo relatives (Seneca of Sandusky) in Ohio. In 1831 this combined group ceded their Ohio reserve to the United States and relocated to the Indian Territory. A few New York Seneca moved to Kansas at this time but, after the Civil War, joined the others in northeast Oklahoma to become the modern Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma. 
(Quoted from: 

President Roosevelt is seen here meeting with Governor Neptune, an Iroquois Chief ~ undated
Image courtesy of:

Mi'kmaq Tribe ~ Gaspé Peninsula of Québec

&  the Atlantic  Provinces of Canada

The above eleven portraits are of Mi'kmaq warrior & former U.S. Marine sniper, Danny Boy Stephens
(The above eleven photos are all by davebrosha [Dave Brosha] ~ August 18, 2010)

(The above eight photos are by Qias [Qias Asheri] ~ June 26, 2010)

 (The above two photos are by Mi'kmaq Photo Art [Patricia Bourque] ~ August 17 & 20, 2011)


(The above eighteen photos are by RAdams4 [Russ Adams] ~ July 1, 2011)

Above left, Peter & Pasamay Doucette ~ July 5, 2009 | Above right, Peter Doucette ~ July 4, 2008
(The above two photos are by John Jeddore)

The above two photos are of Thomas Clair, a Mi'kmaq artist
(The above two photos are by David.R.Carroll ~ June 13 & 14, 2009)
The above forty-three images are courtesy of:

Mohawk Tribe ~ Ontario & Québec
(Photo by Pictures from Sneha on and off ~ November 7, 2009)

Cody Kidwell, Youth Chief of the Haudenosaune Mohawk Nation
(Photo by redhawk45 [Eric Macuski] ~ October 31, 2011)

The Mohawk Nation, then known as Kanien'kehake (people of the flint) was one of the five founding Nations of the Iroquois League (or confederacy). The name Mohawk was given to the tribe by the Algonquin and was later adopted by the Europeans who had difficulty pronouncing Kanien'kehake. The other Nations in the Confederacy were the Cayuga, the Seneca, the Oneida, and the Onondaga. The sixth Nation to join were the Tuscarora. (Quoted from: Mohawk Tribe)


(The two photos above are by Robby Cee [Rob Stanfield] ~ July 29, 2006 & July 24, 2005)
The above four images are courtesy of:

Nisga'a Tribe ~ British Columbia
Above left, Edward Azak ~ Killer Whale Clan | Above right, Rob Robinson ~ Eagle Clan

 Above left, Jacob Nyce ~ Wolf Clan | Above right, Salome McKay ~ Wolf Clan

Above left, Chester Moore ~ Raven Clan | Above right, Gordon McKay ~ Eagle Clan
The above six images are courtesy of: AAANativeArts

We are Nisga'a, People of the Nass River. We have lived here, on British Columbia's northwest coast, since time immemorial. Long enough to see our culture thrive, adapt, and endure.

Canada's Nisga'a Nation is represented by Nisga'a Lisims Government - a modern, forward-thinking administration based on traditional culture and values. Together, we have built a culture and economy that respects and protects our natural heritage. (Quoted from: Nisga'a Lisims Government)

The above three photos are of Hobiye'e ~ 2005
Hobiye'e is the Nisga'a New Year celebration, taking place in late February when the Oolichan fish return to the Nass River.
(The above three photos are by Jethro Taylor ~ February 26 & 27, 2005)

The above six photos are of the 2009 Hobiye'e
(The above six photos are by antcreations [] ~ February 27, 2009)
The above nine images are courtesy of:

Okanagan Tribe ~ British Columbia

 (The above four photos are by soulvision [Wendy] ~ June 21, 2005)
The above four images are courtesy of:

Ottawa (Odawa) Tribe ~ Ontario & Michigan
(The above left photo is by jazziam [Richard] ~ July 3, 2011)
(The above right photo is by StacyN - MichiganMoments [S. Niedzwiecki] ~ May 23, 2009)

(The above two photos are by StacyN - MichiganMoments [S. Niedzwiecki] ~ May 23, 2009)

(Photo by smiles7 ~ August 14, 2011)
The above five images are courtesy of:

Doug Hall, a member of the Odawa tribe of Minnesota
Image courtesy of:

The 2011 Grand River Band Pow Wow in Riverside Park
Image courtesy of: Weird Review

Squamish (Squawmish) Tribe ~ British Columbia

Members of the Squamish Nation celebrate the carving & unveiling of the Yelton Family Memorial Pole in Stanley Park, Vancouver, British Columbia. 
(The above five photos are by mariskar [Mariska Richters] ~ August 23, 2009)

The Squamish Nation is comprised of descendants of the Coast Salish Aboriginal peoples who lived in the present day Greater Vancouver area; Gibson’s landing and Squamish River watershed.

Our language is the Squamish language. Our society is, and always has been, organized and sophisticated, with complex laws and rules governing all forms of social relations, economic rights and relations with other First Nations.

We have never ceded or surrendered title to our lands, rights to our resources or the power to make decisions within our territory. (Quoted from: Coast Salish First Nations In Canada | Squamish Nation)

Lady Fancy Shawl Dancers, Squamish Nation Pow-Wow ~ 2011
(The above two photos are by RayVanEng ~ July 9, 2011)
The above seven images are courtesy of:


Grand Entry at the Squamish Nation Pow Wow on Vancouver's North Shore
Image courtesy of: Canadian Mosaic

Wendat (Huron-Wendat), Wyandot or Wyondotte Tribe ~ Province of Québec
(Photo by Painted Light ~ August 1, 2010)

(Photo by Johny Day ~ August 23, 2009)
The above two images are courtesy of:

The Huron-Wendat nation is one of Québec’s most urbanized aboriginal nations. Some 1,300 Huron-Wendats live in Wendake, a municipality neighbouring Québec City, and 1,700 live outside this municipality. The Huron-Wendats have adopted French as their language of everyday use to the detriment of the Huron-Wendat language.

  Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, the Huron-Wendats led a semi-sedentary life in the area around Georgian Bay in Ontario. They grew corn in large abundance as well as tobacco, and used the surplus to barter on a large scale with the other Indian nations, notably from the Great Lakes to Hudson Bay.
(Quoted from: Secrétariat aux affaires autochtones ~ © Gouvernement du Québec, 2012)

The Huron-Wendat Nation Grand Chief, Konrad Sioui, chats with the Duchess of Cambridge during the Royal newlyweds' first official tour of Canada ~ July 3, 2011
The above image is courtesy of: The Atlantic Wire


Map of British Columbia's Tribal Nations, courtesy of: First-Nations

The below two maps of New Brunswick & Québec are courtesy of: Crossamerika's Blog

Map of Ontario is courtesy of: neelyswiki

Map of Canada is courtesy of: Imageshack


Suggested readings:

Coast Salish: Their Art, Culture and Legends (1978), by Reg Ashwell: Hancock House

Canada's First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples from Earliest Times (1992), by Olive Patricia Dickason: University of Oklahoma Press

Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan, 1855-1868 (1993), by Raymond C. Lantz: Heritage Books

The Iroquois: History of the Six Nations (1995), by Silas Conrad Kimm: RSG Publishing

The First Canadians: A Profile of Canada's Native People Today (1995), by Pauline Comeau & Aldo Santin: James Lorimer & Company

Captured Heritage: The Scramble for Northwest Coast Artifacts (1995), by Douglas Cole: University of British Columbia (UBC) Press

The First Nations of British Columbia: An Anthropological Survey (1998), by Robert James Muckle: University of British Columbia  (UBC) Press

Understanding Northwest Coast Art: A Guide to Crests, Beings, and Symbols (2000), by Cheryl Shearar: Douglas & McIntyre

The World Is Our Witness: The Historic Journey of The Nisga'a Into Canada (2000), by Tom Molloy & Donald Ward: Fifth House Publishers

Potlatch People: Indian Lives and Legends of British Columbia (2003), by Mildred Valley Thornton: Hancock House

The Mohawk (2004), by Nancy Bonvillain: Infobase Publishing

The Iroquois (2005), by Barbara Graymont: Infobase Publishing

American Indians of the Pacific Northwest (2005), by Elizabeth Von Aderkas & Christa Hook: Osprey Publishing

Classic Images of Canadian First Nations (1880-1920) (2006), by Edward Cavell: Altitude Pub Canada Limited

Q'Sapi: A History of Okanagan People As Told by Okanagan Families (2008), by Shirley Louis: Theytus Books

A Concise History of Canada's First Nations (2010), by Olive Patricia Dickason & William Newbigging: Oxford University Press

First Nations, Identity, and Reserve Life: The Mi'Kmaq of Nova Scotia (2011), by Simone Poliandri: University of Nebraska Press

Indian Legends of Canada (2011), by Ella Elizabeth Clark: Random House Digital, Inc.